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Curr Opin Virol. 2016 Dec;21:109-113. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2016.08.017. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Adenovirus sensing by the immune system.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Emory University, 1760 Haygood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: svetlana.atasheva@emory.edu.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Emory University, 1760 Haygood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Medicine, Lowance Center for Human Immunology, Emory Children's Center for Transplantation and Immune Mediated Disorders, Emory University, 1760 Haygood Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: dmitryshay@emory.edu.

Abstract

The host immune system developed multiple ways for recognition of viral pathogens. Upon disseminated adenovirus infection, the immune system senses adenovirus invasion from the moment it enters the bloodstream. The soluble blood factors, FX, antibodies, and complement, can bind and activate plethora of host-protective immune responses. Adenovirus binding to the cellular β3 integrin and endosomal membrane rupture trigger activation of IL-1α/IL-1R1 proinflammatory cascade leading to attraction of cytotoxic immune cells to the site of infection. Upon cell entry, adenovirus exposes its DNA genome in the cytoplasm and triggers DNA sensors signaling. Even when inside the nucleus, the specialized cellular machinery that recognizes the double-strand DNA breaks become activated and triggers viral DNA replication arrest. Thus, the host employs very diverse mechanisms to prevent viral dissemination.

PMID:
27639089
PMCID:
PMC5138075
DOI:
10.1016/j.coviro.2016.08.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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