Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2016 Sep 16;11(9):e0163132. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163132. eCollection 2016.

Factors Associated with Higher Reported Pain Levels in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Analysis.

Author information

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, disabling, and costly, and has many negative effects on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with higher reported pain levels in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain among demographic, clinical, and psychological factors, and to evaluate whether insomnia is independently associated with pain intensity in this population.


A total of 357 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (pain duration ≥ six months) satisfied the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analyses. Patient demographics, clinical, and psychological factors were evaluated with hierarchical multivariate logistic analysis to identify factors associated with severe pain (NRS [numeric rating scale] ≥ 7). Hierarchical linear regression analysis also performed to identify factors associated with pain intensity (0 to 10 NRS).


Multivariate logistic analyses revealed older age (OR [odds ratio] = 1.017, 95% CI [confidence interval] 1.001-1.032, P = 0.034), high anxiety level (OR = 1.162, 95% CI 1.020-1.324, P = 0.024), high pain catastrophizing (OR = 1.043, 95% CI 1.007-1.081, P = 0.018), and severe insomnia (OR = 1.112, 95% CI 1.057-1.170, P<0.001) were significantly associated with severe pain. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed age (β = 0.106, P = 0.041), pain catastrophizing (β = 0.249, P<0.001), and insomnia (β = 0.286, P<0.001) were significantly associated with pain intensity. The variance in pain intensity explained by the final model was 32.2%.


Older age, severe insomnia, and high pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with higher reported pain levels. Insomnia was independently associated with pain intensity, even after controlling for various demographic and clinical factors. These factors should be considered when devising pain management strategies for this population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center