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Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2017 Feb;28(1):53-59. doi: 10.1111/pai.12658. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Enhanced T helper 1 and 2 cytokine responses at birth associate with lower risk of middle ear infections in infancy.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Central Finland, Jyväskylä, Finland.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
3
Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
4
Department of Health Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
6
Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
7
Children's Hospital Schwarzach, Schwarzach, Austria.
8
Christine Kühne Center for Allergy Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland.
9
Children's Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
10
Department of Respiratory Disease, University of Besançon, UMR/CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environment, University Hospital, Besançon, France.
11
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
12
Children's Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
13
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
14
Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.
15
Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Pathobiochemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
16
Member of the German Center for Lung Research, UGMLC, Marburg, Germany.
17
Comprehensive Biomaterial Bank Marburg CBBM, Medical faculty, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
18
Division of Experimental Asthma Research, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz-Center for Medicine and Biosciences, Member of the German Research Center for Lung Research, Borstel, Germany.
19
Institute for Experimental Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
20
Member of the German Center for Lung Research, CPC-M, Munich, Germany.
21
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Respiratory tract infections and their symptoms are frequent during early childhood, but their risk factors, including the effect of early immune regulation, are less known. The aim of the study was to analyze whether stimulated cord blood cytokine production is associated with the frequency of respiratory tract infection symptoms or infections during the first year of life.

METHODS:

The study population consisted of children of mothers from farm or non-farm rural environment from Austria, Finland, Germany, and Switzerland who participated in a prospective birth cohort study (PASTURE: Protection against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments) (N = 550). Cord blood samples were stimulated with the combination of phorbol ester and ionomycin (P/I) for 24 h, and the production of IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was determined using ELISA. Information about infectious morbidity was collected using weekly diaries.

RESULTS:

P/I-stimulated production of IL-5 (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for ≤median production, 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.55, aRR for >median production, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.61 vs. production <detection limit) and IFN-γ (aRR for ≤median production, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95, aRR for >median production, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.25-0.62 vs. production <detection limit) in cord blood were associated with lower number of weeks with reported middle ear infection. There was a tendency toward positive association with P/I-stimulated TNF-α production and middle ear infections.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that increased Th2- and Th1-associated cytokine responses at birth may provide protection from later middle ear infections.

KEYWORDS:

cord blood; cytokines; interferon-γ; interleukin-10; interleukin-5; middle ear infection; respiratory infections; respiratory symptoms; tumor necrosis factor-α

PMID:
27633913
DOI:
10.1111/pai.12658
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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