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Chemosphere. 2016 Dec;164:568-575. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.141. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Health risk assessment of the intake of butyltin and phenyltin compounds from fish and seafood in Taiwanese population.

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Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Environmental Trace Toxic Substances Research Center, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Executive Yuan, Taiwan.
Institute of Occupational Safety and Hazard Prevention, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:


Organotin compounds have been applied as stabilizers for PVCs, fungicides, and pesticides, those can enter water systems through antifouling paints on ships as well as from diverse industrial and agricultural processes. This study aims to monitor the background levels of six organotins in 200 fishery products. In the current study, the high organotin levels are over tolerable average residue levels in Taiwan. Phenyltins (PTs) levels in fish and seafood are higher than butyltins (BTs). Risk assessment showed that 95% upper confidence limits of the hazard index (HI) of organotins were almost all over 1, indicating that there are probability of health impacts for organotin consumption in Taiwanese consumers. Those who consume higher amounts of seafood and fishery may be at a higher risk of health issues, but the data indicate that organotin levels have become controlled in recent years as compared with health risk data published in 2006.


Butyltins; Organotins; Phenyltins; Risk assessment; Tolerable average residue level

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