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J Neurol. 2016 Dec;263(12):2446-2455. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Clinical characteristics and outcomes between children and adults with anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor encephalitis.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
2
Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Nwuyuan90@163.com.

Abstract

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an acute neurological disorder affecting children and adults. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes between children and adults with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and to assess the probable risk factors. In this observational study, patients who tested positive for anti-NMDAR antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid were enrolled. The patients were divided into children and adults group on the basis of age (whether <16 or not). Clinical outcomes were assessed at onset, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the patients received treatment and were scored based on whether they required hospitalization and intensive care. A total of 15 children and 14 adults were examined. The adults more likely manifested status epilepticus, central hypoventilation, and pneumonia but less likely exhibited movement disorder than the children did. All of the patients were subjected to corticosteroid treatment, 11 children and 9 adults were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, and only the adults received plasma exchange or cyclophosphamide. The children recovered faster than the adults, especially in the first 6 months. Risk factors included age, status epilepticus, changes in consciousness, central hypoventilation, and pneumonia. Adults exhibit worse outcomes than children mostly because of status epilepticus.

KEYWORDS:

Adults; Anti-NMDAR encephalitis; Children; Prognosis; Status epilepticus

PMID:
27632180
DOI:
10.1007/s00415-016-8282-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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