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J Virol. 2016 Nov 14;90(23):10472-10485. Print 2016 Dec 1.

SUMO Modification Stabilizes Enterovirus 71 Polymerase 3D To Facilitate Viral Replication.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China zhengzh@wh.iov.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that viruses hijack cellular proteins to circumvent the host immune system. Ubiquitination and SUMOylation are extensively studied posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that play critical roles in diverse biological processes. Cross talk between ubiquitination and SUMOylation of both host and viral proteins has been reported to result in distinct functional consequences. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), an RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Little is known concerning how host PTM systems interact with enteroviruses. Here, we demonstrate that the 3D protein, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of EV71, is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) both during infection and in vitro Residues K159 and L150/D151/L152 were responsible for 3D SUMOylation as determined by bioinformatics prediction combined with site-directed mutagenesis. Also, primer-dependent polymerase assays indicated that mutation of SUMOylation sites impaired 3D polymerase activity and virus replication. Moreover, 3D is ubiquitinated in a SUMO-dependent manner, and SUMOylation is crucial for 3D stability, which may be due to the interplay between the two PTMs. Importantly, increasing the level of SUMO-1 in EV71-infected cells augmented the SUMOylation and ubiquitination levels of 3D, leading to enhanced replication of EV71. These results together suggested that SUMO and ubiquitin cooperatively regulated EV71 infection, either by SUMO-ubiquitin hybrid chains or by ubiquitin conjugating to the exposed lysine residue through SUMOylation. Our study provides new insight into how a virus utilizes cellular pathways to facilitate its replication.

IMPORTANCE:

Infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) often causes neurological diseases in children, and EV71 is responsible for the majority of fatalities. Based on a better understanding of interplay between virus and host cell, antiviral drugs against enteroviruses may be developed. As a dynamic cellular process of posttranslational modification, SUMOylation regulates global cellular protein localization, interaction, stability, and enzymatic activity. However, little is known concerning how SUMOylation directly influences virus replication by targeting viral polymerase. Here, we found that EV71 polymerase 3D was SUMOylated during EV71 infection and in vitro Moreover, the SUMOylation sites were determined, and in vitro polymerase assays indicated that mutations at SUMOylation sites could impair polymerase synthesis. Importantly, 3D is ubiquitinated in a SUMOylation-dependent manner that enhances the stability of the viral polymerase. Our findings indicate that the two modifications likely cooperatively enhance virus replication. Our study may offer a new therapeutic strategy against virus replication.

PMID:
27630238
PMCID:
PMC5110190
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.01756-16
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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