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J Neurosci. 2016 Sep 14;36(37):9590-603. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0020-16.2016.

Resolvin D1 Programs Inflammation Resolution by Increasing TGF-β Expression Induced by Dying Cell Clearance in Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis.

Author information

1
Institute of Immunology of PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.
2
Department of Pathology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China, and Division of Immunopathology of the Nervous System, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, University of Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen, Germany zhiyuan.zhang@medizin.uni-tuebingen.de zzy@njmu.edu.cn zhangzhiren@yahoo.com.
3
Institute of Immunology of PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China, zhiyuan.zhang@medizin.uni-tuebingen.de zzy@njmu.edu.cn zhangzhiren@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is the animal model of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (AIDP), an auto-immune inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the world's leading cause of acute autoimmune neuromuscular paralysis. EAN and AIDP are characterized by self-limitation with spontaneous recovery; however, endogenous pathways that regulate inflammation resolution in EAN and AIDP remain elusive. A pathway of endogenous mediators, especially resolvins and clearance of apoptotic cells, may be involved. Here, we determined that resolvin D1 (RvD1), its synthetic enzyme, and its receptor were greatly increased in PNS during the recovery stage of EAN. Both endogenous and exogenous RvD1 increased regulatory T (Treg) cell and anti-inflammatory macrophage counts in PNS, enhanced inflammation resolution, and promoted disease recovery in EAN rats. Moreover, RvD1 upregulated the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) level and pharmacologic inhibition of TGF-β signaling suppressed RvD1-induced Treg cell counts, but not anti-inflammatory macrophage counts, and RvD1-improved inflammation resolution and disease recovery in EAN rats. Mechanistically, the RvD1-enhanced macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic T cells leading to reduced apoptotic T-cell accumulation in PNS induced TGF-β production and caused Treg cells to promote inflammation resolution and disease recovery in EAN. Therefore, these data highlight the crucial role of RvD1 as an important pro-resolving molecule in EAN and suggest its potential as a therapeutic target in human neuropathies.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:

Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is the animal model of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies, an auto-immune inflammatory demyelination disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the world's leading cause of acute autoimmune neuromuscular paralysis. Here, we demonstrated that resolvin D1 (RvD1) promoted macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic T cells in PNS, thereby upregulating transforming growth factor-β by macrophages, increased local Treg cell counts, and finally promoted inflammation resolution and disease recovery in EAN. These data highlight the crucial role of RvD1 as an important pro-resolving molecule in EAN and suggest that it has potential as a therapeutic target in human neuritis.

KEYWORDS:

apoptotic cell clearance; experimental autoimmune neuritis; inflammation resolution; macrophages; regulatory T cells; resolvin D1

PMID:
27629711
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0020-16.2016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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