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Microb Cell Fact. 2016 Sep 15;15(1):156. doi: 10.1186/s12934-016-0555-y.

Identification of target genes to control acetate yield during aerobic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Author information

1
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de La Rioja-Gobierno de La Rioja, Departamento de Enología, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino, Finca La Grajera, Ctra. De Burgos Km. 6, 26007, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain.
2
Evolva Biotech A/S, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
3
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de La Rioja-Gobierno de La Rioja, Departamento de Enología, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino, Finca La Grajera, Ctra. De Burgos Km. 6, 26007, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain. rgonzalez@icvv.es.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Aerobic fermentation of grape must, leading to respiro-fermentative metabolism of sugars, has been proposed as way of reducing alcohol content in wines. Two factors limit the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for this application, the Crabtree effect, and excess volatile acidity under aerobic conditions. This work aimed to explore the impact on ethanol acetate production of different S. cerevisiae strains deleted for genes previously related with the Crabtree phenotype.

RESULTS:

Recombinant strains were constructed on a wine industrial genetic background, FX10. All yeast strains, including FX10, showed respiro-fermentative metabolism in natural grape must under aerobic conditions, as well as a concomitant reduction in ethanol yield. This indicates that the Crabtree effect is not a major constrain for reaching relevant respiration levels in grape must. Indeed, only minor differences in ethanol yield were observed between the original and some of the recombinant strains. In contrast, some yeast strains showed a relevant reduction of acetic acid production. This was identified as a positive feature for the feasibility of alcohol level reduction by respiration. Reduced acetic acid production was confirmed by a thorough analysis of these and some additional deletion strains (involving genes HXK2, PYK1, REG1, PDE2 and PDC1). Some recombinant yeasts showed altered production of glycerol and pyruvate derived metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS:

REG1 and PDC1 deletion strains showed a strong reduction of acetic acid yield in aerobic fermentations. Since REG1 defective strains may be obtained by non-GMO approaches, these gene modifications show good promise to help reducing ethanol content in wines.

KEYWORDS:

Aerobic fermentation; Alcohol level reduction; Carbon catabolite derepression; Crabtree effect; Volatile acidity; Wine

PMID:
27627879
PMCID:
PMC5024518
DOI:
10.1186/s12934-016-0555-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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