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PLoS One. 2016 Sep 14;11(9):e0162850. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162850. eCollection 2016.

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Mucoadhesive Film Containing Acmella oleracea Extract for Oral Mucosa Topical Anesthesia.

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Department of Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, Brazil.
Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Paulinia, Brazil.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.
Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.



To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa.


Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC). The mucoadhesive films were characterized regarding their uniformity, thickness, pH, and spilanthol content, and their stability was evaluated during 120 days. Gas chromatography was used to quantify the amount of spilanthol. In vitro tests determined the permeation of spilanthol across pig esophageal epithelium mucosa in Franz diffusion cells. Topical anesthetic efficacy was assessed in vivo using a tail flick test in mice.


The three mucoadhesive films showed physical stability and visual appearances suitable for use on oral mucosa. The permeation study revealed that the spilanthol from 10% JBC presented higher flux and permeability coefficient values, compared to 10% or 20% JB (p < 0.001). Moreover, 10% JBC showed better topical anesthetic efficacy than the other films (p < 0.01).


Mucoadhesive film containing crude extract of jambu treated with activated carbon is a potential alternative for oral, topical use, encouraging future clinical studies.

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