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J Biomed Opt. 2016 Dec 1;21(12):121502. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.21.12.121502.

Hybridized wavefront shaping for high-speed, high-efficiency focusing through dynamic diffusive media.

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Washington University in St. Louis, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, One Brookings Drive, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130, United States.


One of the prime limiting factors of optical imaging in biological applications is the diffusion of light by tissue, which prevents focusing at depths greater than the optical diffusion limit (typically ?1??mm). To overcome this challenge, wavefront shaping techniques that use a spatial light modulator (SLM) to correct the phase of the incident wavefront have recently been developed. These techniques are able to focus light through scattering media beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, the low speeds of typically used liquid crystal SLMs limit the focusing speed. Here, we present a method using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electro-optic modulator (EOM) to measure the scattering-induced aberrations, and using a liquid crystal SLM to apply the correction to the illuminating wavefront. By combining phase modulation from an EOM with the DMD’s ability to provide selective illumination, we exploit the DMD’s higher refresh rate for phase measurement. We achieved focusing through scattering media in less than 8 ms, which is sufficiently short for certain in vivo applications, as it is comparable to the speckle correlation time of living tissue.

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