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Front Cell Dev Biol. 2016 Aug 30;4:91. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2016.00091. eCollection 2016.

Regulation of Muscle Stem Cell Functions: A Focus on the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Author information

1
Cell Biology Group, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, CIBER on Neurodegenerative diseases (CIBERNED), Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain.
2
Cell Biology Group, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, CIBER on Neurodegenerative diseases (CIBERNED), Pompeu Fabra UniversityBarcelona, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA)Barcelona, Spain; Tissue Regeneration Laboratory, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones CardiovascularesMadrid, Spain.

Abstract

Formation of skeletal muscle fibers (myogenesis) during development and after tissue injury in the adult constitutes an excellent paradigm to investigate the mechanisms whereby environmental cues control gene expression programs in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) by acting on transcriptional and epigenetic effectors. Here we will review the molecular mechanisms implicated in the transition of satellite cells throughout the distinct myogenic stages (i.e., activation from quiescence, proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal). We will also discuss recent findings on the causes underlying satellite cell functional decline with aging. In particular, our review will focus on the epigenetic changes underlying fate decisions and on how the p38 MAPK signaling pathway integrates the environmental signals at the chromatin to build up satellite cell adaptive responses during the process of muscle regeneration, and how these responses are altered in aging. A better comprehension of the signaling pathways connecting external and intrinsic factors will illuminate the path for improving muscle regeneration in the aged.

KEYWORDS:

aging; epigenetics; muscle stem cells; p38 MAPKs; satellite cells; tissue regeneration

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