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J Thorac Dis. 2016 Aug;8(8):2175-84. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.07.65.

A survey among Brazilian thoracic surgeons about the use of preoperative 2D and 3D images.

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Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.



Describe the characteristics of how the thoracic surgeon uses the 2D/3D medical imaging to perform surgical planning, clinical practice and teaching in thoracic surgery and check the initial choice and the final choice of the Brazilian Thoracic surgeon as the 2D and 3D models pictures before and after acquiring theoretical knowledge on the generation, manipulation and interactive 3D views.


A descriptive research type Survey cross to data provided by the Brazilian Thoracic Surgeons (members of the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery) who responded to the online questionnaire via the internet on their computers or personal devices.


Of the 395 invitations visualized distributed by email, 107 surgeons completed the survey. There was no statically difference when comparing the 2D vs. 3D models pictures for the following purposes: diagnosis, assessment of the extent of disease, preoperative surgical planning, and communication among physicians, resident training, and undergraduate medical education. Regarding the type of tomographic image display routinely used in clinical practice (2D or 3D or 2D-3D model image) and the one preferred by the surgeon at the end of the questionnaire. Answers surgeons for exclusive use of 2D images: initial choice =50.47% and preferably end =14.02%. Responses surgeons to use 3D models in combination with 2D images: initial choice =48.60% and preferably end =85.05%. There was a significant change in the final selection of 3D models used together with the 2D images (P<0.0001).


There is a lack of knowledge of the 3D imaging, as well as the use and interactive manipulation in dedicated 3D applications, with consequent lack of uniformity in the surgical planning based on CT images. These findings certainly confirm in changing the preference of thoracic surgeons of 2D views of technologies for 3D images.


2D image; 3D image; preoperative diagnosis; thoracic surgery

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