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Front Immunol. 2016 Aug 29;7:322. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00322. eCollection 2016.

Transient Migration of Large Numbers of CD14(++) CD16(+) Monocytes to the Draining Lymph Node after Onset of Inflammation.

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Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences , Oslo , Norway.
Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences , Oslo , Norway.


The dynamics of skin-draining cells following infection or vaccination provide important insight into the initiation of immune responses. In this study, the local recruitment and activation of immune cells in draining lymph nodes (LNs) was studied in calves in an adjuvant-induced inflammation. A transient but remarkably strong recruitment of monocytes was demonstrated after onset of inflammation, constituting up to 41% of live cells in the draining LNs after 24 h. Numerous CD14(+) cells were visualized in subcutaneous tissues and draining LNs, and the majority of these cells did not express dendritic cell-associated markers CD205 and CD11c. In the LNs, recruited cells were predominately of a CD14(++) and CD16(+) phenotype, consistent with an intermediate monocyte subset characterized to possess a high inflammatory potential. Moreover, monocytes from the draining LN showed a high expression of genes coding for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNFa, and TGFβ. Shortly after their appearance in the LN cortical areas, the monocytes had moved into the medulla followed by an increase in peripheral blood. In conclusion, this study provides novel information on in vivo monocyte recruitment and migration after onset of inflammation.


inflammation; lymph node; migration; monocytes; pro-inflammatory cytokines

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