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J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Dec;31(12):1496-1502. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Incarceration History and Uncontrolled Blood Pressure in a Multi-Site Cohort.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208030, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. benjamin.howell@yale.edu.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208030, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
3
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.
4
Veterans Administration Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA.
5
Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.
6
Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Incarceration is associated with increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease mortality. We used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) to explore the impact of incarceration on blood pressure (BP) control.

METHODS:

Among hypertensive VACS participants, we measured the association between self-reported recent incarceration or past (not recent) history of incarceration and BP control in the year following the survey. To analyze the association between incarceration and BP control, we used logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, clinical factors (HIV status and body mass index), and behavioral factors (history of smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, illicit drug use). We explored potential mediators including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, primary care engagement, and adherence to antihypertensive medications.

RESULTS:

Among the 3515 eligible VACS participants, 2304 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 163 (7 %) reported recent incarceration, and 904 (39 %) reported a past history of incarceration. Participants with recent or past history of incarceration were more likely to have uncontrolled BP than those without a history of incarceration (67 % vs. 56 % vs. 51 %, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, recent incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.26), but not a past history of incarceration (AOR = 1.08 95 % CI: 0.90-1.30), was associated with uncontrolled BP compared with those who were never incarcerated.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among patients with a history of hypertension, recent incarceration is associated with having uncontrolled BP following release. Interventions are needed for recently released individuals to improve hypertension outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

chronic disease/epidemiology; chronic disease/therapy; hypertension/epidemiology; hypertension/therapy; incarceration; prisoners; socioeconomic factors

PMID:
27619934
PMCID:
PMC5130961
DOI:
10.1007/s11606-016-3857-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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