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Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Nov;170(11):2788-2802. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37883. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Gene variants as risk factors for gastroschisis.

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Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California.
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, California.
UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland, Oakland, California.


In a population-based case-control study in California of 228 infants, we investigated 75 genetic variants in 20 genes and risk of gastroschisis with regard to maternal age, race/ethnicity, vitamin use, and smoking exposure. We hypothesized that genes related to vascular compromise may interact with environmental factors to affect the risk of gastroschisis. Haplotypes were constructed for 75 gene variants using the HaploView program. Risk for gastroschisis associated with each gene variant was calculated for both the homozygotes and the heterozygotes, with the homozygous wildtypes as the referent. Risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. We found 11 gene variants with increased risk and four variants with decreased risk of gastroschisis for heterozygous (ORh ) or homozygous variants (ORv ) genotypes. These included NOS3 (rs1036145) ORh  = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.7); NOS3 (rs10277237) ORv  = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-6.0); ADD1 (rs12503220) ORh  = 2.9 (95% CI: 1.6-5.4), GNB3 (rs5443) ORh  = 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.5), ORv  = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.9); ICAM1 (rs281428) ORv  = 6.9 (95% CI: 2.1-22.9), ICAM1 (rs3093030) ORv  = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.6); ICAM4 (rs281438) ORv  = 4.9 (95% CI: 1.4-16.6), ICAM5 (rs281417) ORh  = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.1), ORv  = 4.8 (95% CI: 1.7-13.6); ICAM5 (rs281440) ORh  = 23.7 (95% CI: 5.5-102.5), ORv  = 20.6 (95% CI: 3.4-124.3); ICAM5 (rs2075741) ORv  = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.4); NAT1 ORv  = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1-0.9). There were additional associations between several gene variants and gastroschisis among women aged 20-24 and among mothers with and without vitamin use. NOS3, ADD1, ICAM1, ICAM4, and ICAM5 warrant further investigation in additional populations and with the interaction of additional environmental exposures.


gastroschisis; gene variant

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