Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016 Sep;18 Suppl 1:63-70. doi: 10.1111/dom.12716.

β-Cell adaptation in pregnancy.

Author information

1
Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco.
2
Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco.
3
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco.
4
Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis.
5
Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco. michael.german@ucsf.edu.
6
Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco. michael.german@ucsf.edu.
7
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco. michael.german@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

Pregnancy in placental mammals places unique demands on the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The pancreas anticipates the increase in insulin resistance that occurs late in pregnancy by increasing β-cell numbers and function earlier in pregnancy. In rodents, this β-cell expansion depends on secreted placental lactogens that signal through the prolactin receptor. Then at the end of pregnancy, the β-cell population contracts back to its pre-pregnancy size. In the current review, we focus on how glucose metabolism changes during pregnancy, how β-cells anticipate these changes through their response to lactogens and what molecular mechanisms guide the adaptive compensation. In addition, we summarize current knowledge of β-cell adaptation during human pregnancy and what happens when adaptation fails and gestational diabetes ensues. A better understanding of human β-cell adaptation to pregnancy would benefit efforts to predict, prevent and treat gestational diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Htr1d; Htr2b; Htr3a; gestational diabetes; insulin; placenta; placental lactogen; pregnancy; serotonin; β-cell

PMID:
27615133
PMCID:
PMC5384851
DOI:
10.1111/dom.12716
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center