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Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Nov;31(11):1101-1111. doi: 10.1007/s10654-016-0191-1. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK. anthony.khawaja@gmail.com.
2
Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 162 City Road, London, EC1V 2PD, UK. anthony.khawaja@gmail.com.
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, 21000, Dijon, France.
6
Univ. Bordeaux, ISPED, 33000, Bordeaux, France.
7
Centre INSERM U897-Epidemiologie-Biostatistique, INSERM, 33000, Bordeaux, France.
8
Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, Netherlands Genomics Initiative, The Hague, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
10
Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.
11
Service d'Ophtalmologie, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, 33000, France.
12
Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra (FMUC), Coimbra, Portugal.
13
Department of Ophthalmology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra (CHUC), Coimbra, Portugal.
14
Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image (AIBILI), Coimbra, Portugal.
15
A Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle Universty of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
16
Departments of Ophthalmology and Twin Research, King's College London, London, UK.
17
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.
18
Dardenne Eye Hospital, Bonn, Germany.
19
Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
20
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK.

Abstract

Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional associations with IOP in 43,500 European adults from 12 cohort studies belonging to the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression with IOP as the outcome variable and results were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. The association of standardized study IOP with latitude was tested using meta-regression. Higher IOP was observed in men (0.18 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.06, 0.31; P = 0.004) and with higher body mass index (0.21 mmHg per 5 kg/m2; 95 % CI 0.14, 0.28; P < 0.001), shorter height (-0.17 mmHg per 10 cm; 95 % CI -0.25, -0.08; P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (0.17 mmHg per 10 mmHg; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.22; P < 0.001) and more myopic refraction (0.06 mmHg per Dioptre; 95 % CI 0.03, 0.09; P < 0.001). An inverted U-shaped trend was observed between age and IOP, with IOP increasing up to the age of 60 and decreasing in participants older than 70 years. We found no significant association between standardized IOP and study location latitude (P = 0.76). Novel findings of our study include the association of lower IOP in taller people and an inverted-U shaped association of IOP with age. We found no evidence of significant variation in IOP across Europe. Despite the limited range of latitude amongst included studies, this finding is in favour of collaborative pooling of data from studies examining environmental and genetic determinants of IOP in Europeans.

KEYWORDS:

Blood pressure; Body mass index; Epidemiology; Glaucoma; Intraocular pressure; Refractive errors

PMID:
27613171
PMCID:
PMC5206267
DOI:
10.1007/s10654-016-0191-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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