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Behav Res Methods. 2017 Aug;49(4):1407-1419. doi: 10.3758/s13428-016-0797-y.

The Set of Fear Inducing Pictures (SFIP): Development and validation in fearful and nonfearful individuals.

Author information

1
Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. jmichalowski@psych.uw.edu.pl.
2
Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
3
Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Centre, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
4
Laboratory of Psychophysiology, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract

Emotionally charged pictorial materials are frequently used in phobia research, but no existing standardized picture database is dedicated to the study of different phobias. The present work describes the results of two independent studies through which we sought to develop and validate this type of database-a Set of Fear Inducing Pictures (SFIP). In Study 1, 270 fear-relevant and 130 neutral stimuli were rated for fear, arousal, and valence by four groups of participants; small-animal (N = 34), blood/injection (N = 26), social-fearful (N = 35), and nonfearful participants (N = 22). The results from Study 1 were employed to develop the final version of the SFIP, which includes fear-relevant images of social exposure (N = 40), blood/injection (N = 80), spiders/bugs (N = 80), and angry faces (N = 30), as well as 726 neutral photographs. In Study 2, we aimed to validate the SFIP in a sample of spider, blood/injection, social-fearful, and control individuals (N = 66). The fear-relevant images were rated as being more unpleasant and led to greater fear and arousal in fearful than in nonfearful individuals. The fear images differentiated between the three fear groups in the expected directions. Overall, the present findings provide evidence for the high validity of the SFIP and confirm that the set may be successfully used in phobia research.

KEYWORDS:

Affective ratings; Arousal; Emotion; Fear; Phobia; Pictures; Valence; Visual stimuli

PMID:
27613018
PMCID:
PMC5541104
DOI:
10.3758/s13428-016-0797-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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