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Cell. 2016 Sep 8;166(6):1397-1410.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.020.

Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Genetics and Genomics, Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB, Bio-Incubator, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052 Gent, Belgium; Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Gent, Belgium.
2
Laboratory for Genetics and Genomics, Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB, Bio-Incubator, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
3
White Labs, 9495 Candida Street, San Diego, CA 92126, USA.
4
Synthetic Genomics, 11149 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
5
Encinitas Brewing Science, 141 Rodney Avenue, Encinitas, CA 92024, USA.
6
Illumina, 5200 Illumina Way, San Diego, CA 92122, USA.
7
Biological & Popular Culture (BioPop), 2205 Faraday Avenue, Suite E, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA.
8
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
9
Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052 Gent, Belgium; Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Gent, Belgium. Electronic address: steven.maere@psb.vib-ugent.be.
10
Laboratory for Genetics and Genomics, Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory for Systems Biology, VIB, Bio-Incubator, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: kevin.verstrepen@biw.vib-kuleuven.be.

Abstract

Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP.

PMID:
27610566
PMCID:
PMC5018251
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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