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World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Aug 21;22(31):7069-79. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i31.7069.

Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status.

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Nitin Kumar, Bariatric Endoscopy Institute, Addison, IL 60101, United States.


Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program.


Endoscopic sleeve; Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty; Gastric balloon; Gastric bypass; Gastric bypass revision; Intragastric balloon; Obesity; Orbera; Primary obesity surgery endolumenal; Reshape dual balloon; Weight loss

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