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Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1462:481-519. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3816-2_27.

Animal Models of Posttraumatic Seizures and Epilepsy.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 100159, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA. glushav@ufl.edu.
2
Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. glushav@ufl.edu.
3
Banyan Biomarkers, Inc, Alachua, FL, USA.
4
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 100159, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
5
Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.
6
Departments of Neuroscience, Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.
7
Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology, Neuroscience, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Abstract

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most common and devastating complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Currently, the etiopathology and mechanisms of PTE are poorly understood and as a result, there is no effective treatment or means to prevent it. Antiepileptic drugs remain common preventive strategies in the management of TBI to control acute posttraumatic seizures and to prevent the development of PTE, although their efficacy in the latter case is disputed. Different strategies of PTE prophylaxis have been showing promise in preclinical models, but their translation to the clinic still remains elusive due in part to the variability of these models and the fact they do not recapitulate all complex pathologies associated with human TBI. TBI is a multifaceted disorder reflected in several potentially epileptogenic alterations in the brain, including mechanical neuronal and vascular damage, parenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhage, subsequent toxicity caused by iron-rich hemoglobin breakdown products, and energy disruption resulting in secondary injuries, including excitotoxicity, gliosis, and neuroinflammation, often coexisting to a different degree. Several in vivo models have been developed to reproduce the acute TBI cascade of events, to reflect its anatomical pathologies, and to replicate neurological deficits. Although acute and chronic recurrent posttraumatic seizures are well-recognized phenomena in these models, there is only a limited number of studies focused on PTE. The most used mechanical TBI models with documented electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures with remote epileptogenesis include fluid percussion, controlled cortical impact, and weight-drop. This chapter describes the most popular models of PTE-induced TBI models, focusing on the controlled cortical impact and the fluid percussion injury models, the methods of behavioral and electroencephalogram seizure assessments, and other approaches to detect epileptogenic properties, and discusses their potential application for translational research.

KEYWORDS:

Animal model; Behavioral seizures; CCI; Electroencephalography (EEG); Epileptogenesis; Fluid percussion injury; Posttraumatic epilepsy; Posttraumatic seizures; Rodents; TBI

PMID:
27604735
PMCID:
PMC6036905
DOI:
10.1007/978-1-4939-3816-2_27
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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