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Front Genet. 2016 Aug 23;7:152. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2016.00152. eCollection 2016.

Controlling DNA-End Resection: An Emerging Task for Ubiquitin and SUMO.

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1
Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most detrimental lesions, as their incorrect or incomplete repair can lead to genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. Cells have evolved two major competing DSB repair mechanisms: Homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). HR is initiated by DNA-end resection, an evolutionarily conserved process that generates stretches of single-stranded DNA tails that are no longer substrates for religation by the NHEJ machinery. Ubiquitylation and sumoylation, the covalent attachment of ubiquitin and SUMO moieties to target proteins, play multifaceted roles in DNA damage signaling and have been shown to regulate HR and NHEJ, thus ensuring appropriate DSB repair. Here, we give a comprehensive overview about the current knowledge of how ubiquitylation and sumoylation control DSB repair by modulating the DNA-end resection machinery.

KEYWORDS:

CtIP/Sae2; DNA double-strand break repair; DNA-end resection; homologous recombination; sumoylation; ubiquitylation

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