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Front Neurosci. 2016 Aug 23;10:387. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00387. eCollection 2016.

Neuroblast Distribution after Cortical Impact Is Influenced by White Matter Injury in the Immature Gyrencephalic Brain.

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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital Charlestown, MA, USA.
Brain Trauma Lab, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA.
The Office of Chief Medical Examiner New York, NY, USA.
Department of Anesthesiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Children's Hospital at Dartmouth Lebanon, PA, USA.
Brain Trauma Lab, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General HospitalBoston, MA, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical SchoolBoston, MA, USA.


Cortical contusions are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Current knowledge of neuroblast response to cortical injury arises primarily from studies utilizing aspiration or cryoinjury in rodents. In infants and children, cortical impact affects both gray and white matter and any neurogenic response may be complicated by the large expanse of white matter between the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the cortex, and the large number of neuroblasts in transit along the major white matter tracts to populate brain regions. Previously, we described an age-dependent increase of neuroblasts in the SVZ in response to cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain. Here, we investigate if neuroblasts target the injury, if white matter injury influences repair efforts, and if postnatal population of brain regions are disrupted. Piglets received a cortical impact to the rostral gyrus cortex or sham surgery at postnatal day (PND) 7, BrdU 2 days prior to (PND 5 and 6) or after injury (PND 7 and 8), and brains were collected at PND 14. Injury did not alter the number of neuroblasts in the white matter between the SVZ and the rostral gyrus. In the gray matter of the injury site, neuroblast density was increased in cavitated lesions, and the number of BrdU(+) neuroblasts was increased, but comprised less than 1% of all neuroblasts. In the white matter of the injury site, neuroblasts with differentiating morphology were densely arranged along the cavity edge. In a ventral migratory stream, neuroblast density was greater in subjects with a cavitated lesion, indicating that TBI may alter postnatal development of regions supplied by that stream. Cortical impact in the immature gyrencephalic brain produced complicated and variable lesions, increased neuroblast density in cavitated gray matter, resulted in potentially differentiating neuroblasts in the white matter, and may alter the postnatal population of brain regions utilizing a population of neuroblasts that were born prior to PND 5. This platform may be useful to continue to study potential complications of white matter injury and alterations of postnatal population of brain regions, which may contribute to the chronic effects of TBI in children.


calretinin; gyrencephalic; interstitial neurons; neurogenesis; neuroplasticity; pediatric brain injury; traumatic brain injury

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