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Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 7;6:32223. doi: 10.1038/srep32223.

Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging.

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School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 Canada.
CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Via Trasea 7, 35131, Padova, Italy.
UC Davis RISE Small Animal Ocular Imaging Facility, Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Vision Science and Advanced Retinal Imaging laboratory (VSRI), Department of Ophthalmology &Vision Science, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA.


Multiphoton microscopy enables imaging deep into scattering tissues. The efficient generation of non-linear optical effects is related to both the pulse duration (typically on the order of femtoseconds) and the size of the focused spot. Aberrations introduced by refractive index inhomogeneity in the sample distort the wavefront and enlarge the focal spot, which reduces the multiphoton signal. Traditional approaches to adaptive optics wavefront correction are not effective in thick or multi-layered scattering media. In this report, we present sensorless adaptive optics (SAO) using low-coherence interferometric detection of the excitation light for depth-resolved aberration correction of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in biological tissue. We demonstrate coherence-gated SAO TPEF using a transmissive multi-actuator adaptive lens for in vivo imaging in a mouse retina. This configuration has significant potential for reducing the laser power required for adaptive optics multiphoton imaging, and for facilitating integration with existing systems.

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