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Neurodegener Dis Manag. 2016 Oct;6(5):417-29. doi: 10.2217/nmt-2016-0017. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: current knowledge and future directions.

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Brain Injury Research Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.


There is growing concern about the late effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This scoping review summarizes clinical research from the past 10 years that evaluates the relationship between TBI and Alzheimer's disease. This review identified five studies that found increased risk for dementia after TBI, two studies that found no increased risk and four studies that found a relationship only under certain conditions or in specified subsamples. Methodological differences across studies preclude direct comparison of results, and discrepant findings elucidate the complex course of post-TBI neurodegeneration. We discuss the factors that influence the strength and direction of the relationship between TBI and Alzheimer's disease, and the implications of this body of research for patient care and future research.


Alzheimer's disease; dementia; traumatic brain injury

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Financial & competing interests disclosure K Dams-O'Connor conducts research on the comprehensive clinical course of brain injury funded by Grant # K01HD074651-01A1 from the NIH, National Institute of Child Health and Development. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.

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