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Talanta. 2016 Nov 1;160:499-511. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2016.07.056. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE), 1 Gaston Boissier, Paris, 75015 France. Electronic address: enrica.alasonati@lne.fr.
2
Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung (BAM), Richard-Willstaetter-Str. 11, Berlin, 12489 Germany.
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, Ljubljana, 1000 Slovenia.
4
TÜBİTAK Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, TÜBİTAK Gebze Yerleşkesi, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.
5
Department of Biomedical and Inorganic Chemistry, Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE), 1 Gaston Boissier, Paris, 75015 France.

Abstract

The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail.

KEYWORDS:

ICP-MS; Isotope dilution; Limit of quantification; Metrological traceability; Tributyltin; Water Framework Directive

PMID:
27591644
DOI:
10.1016/j.talanta.2016.07.056
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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