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Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016 Sep 2;4(1):97. doi: 10.1186/s40478-016-0368-6.

Neuropathology of supercentenarians - four autopsy case studies.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Yamane, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama, 350-1298, Japan. msktakaobrb@gmail.com.
2
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. msktakaobrb@gmail.com.
3
Center for Supercentenarian Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.
4
Department of Neurology and Brain Bank, Mihara Memorial Hospital, 366 Ohtemachi, Isesaki, Gunma, 372-0006, Japan.
5
Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Abstract

Supercentenarians (aged 110 years old or more) are extremely rare in the world population (the number of living supercentenarians is estimated as 47 in the world), and details about their neuropathological information are limited. Based on previous studies, centenarians (aged 100-109 years old) exhibit several types of neuropathological changes, such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease pathology, primary age-related tauopathy, TDP-43 pathology, and hippocampal sclerosis. In the present study, we provide results from neuropathological analyses of four supercentenarian autopsy cases using conventional and immunohistochemical analysis for neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, we focused on the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease, as well as the status of hippocampal sclerosis, TDP-43 pathology, aging-related tau astrogliopathy, and cerebrovascular diseases. Three cases were characterized as an "intermediate" level of Alzheimer's disease changes (NIA-AA guideline) and one was characterized as primary age-related tauopathy. TDP-43 deposits were present in the hippocampus in two cases. Neither Lewy body pathology nor hippocampal sclerosis was observed. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy was consistently observed, particularly in the basal forebrain. Small vessel diseases were also present, but they were relatively mild for cerebral amyloid-beta angiopathy and arteriolosclerosis. Although our study involved a small number of cases, the results provide a better understanding about human longevity. Neuropathological alterations associated with aging were mild to moderate in the supercentenarian brain, suggesting that these individuals might have some neuroprotective factors against aging. Future prospective studies and extensive molecular analyses are needed to determine the mechanisms of human longevity.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Amyloid-beta; Neuropathology; Supercentenarian; TDP-43; Tau

PMID:
27590044
PMCID:
PMC5010697
DOI:
10.1186/s40478-016-0368-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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