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Audiol Res. 2016 Jun 23;6(1):153. doi: 10.4081/audiores.2016.153. eCollection 2016 Apr 20.

Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language.

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Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX, USA; Audiology India, Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Audiology India, Mysore, Karnataka, India; The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
Audiology India, Mysore, Karnataka, India; All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India.


The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life - 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language.


Translation; adaptation; hearing aids; hearing loss; self-report measures

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