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J Vet Sci. 2017 Sep 30;18(3):273-281. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2017.18.3.273.

Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica isolated from pet dogs and cats.

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Research Unit in Microbial Food Safety and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Center for Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring in Foodborne Pathogens (in cooperation with WHO), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Research Group for Prevention Technology in Livestock, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh 70000, Vietnam.


Salmonella enterica isolates (n = 122), including 32 serotypes from 113 dogs and 9 cats, were obtained from household dogs (n = 250) and cats (n = 50) during 2012-2015. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance phenotyping and genotyping, and virulence gene screening. Serovars Weltevreden (15.6%) and Typhimurium (13.9%) were the most common. The majority (43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. The dog isolates (12.3%) harbored class 1 integrons, of which the dfrA12-aadA2 cassette was most frequent (66.7%). The only class integron in serovar Albany was located on a conjugative plasmid. Two ESBL-producing isolates (i.e., a serovar Krefeld and a serovar Enteritridis) carried blaTEM and blaCTX-M, and the blaTEM gene in both was horizontally transferred. Of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes tested, only qnrS (4.9%) was detected. Most Salmonella isolates harbored invA (100%), prgH (91.8%), and sipB (91%). Positive associations between resistance and virulence genes were observed for blaPSE-1/orgA, cmlA/span, tolC, and sul1/tolC (p < 0.05). The results suggest that companion dogs and cats are potential sources of S. enterica strains that carry resistance and virulence genes and that antimicrobial use in companion animals may select for the examined Salmonella virulence factors.


Salmonella enterica; antimicrobial resistance; integrons; pets; virulence factors

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