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Water Res. 2016 Nov 1;104:461-472. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.08.040. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Occurrence and removal of multiple classes of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents in biological wastewater treatment processes.

Author information

1
NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, T-Lab Building, #02-01, 5A Engineering Drive 1 117411, Singapore. Electronic address: eritnh@nus.edu.sg.
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2 117576, Singapore.
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2 117576, Singapore; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA.
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2 117576, Singapore. Electronic address: ceeginyh@nus.edu.sg.

Abstract

Very little information on the occurrence and fate of multiple classes of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment is reported for the Southeast Asian region. This study provides the first and comprehensive data on the occurrence of ten different classes of antimicrobials in wastewater samples for Singapore. Among the investigated antimicrobials, 19 out of 21 target compounds were detected in 100% of the collected raw influent samples. Concentrations of the detected antimicrobials in raw influent varied from 23.8 to 43,740 ng/L. Removal of antimicrobials by conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems at a local wastewater treatment plant was evaluated. MBR exhibited better performance over CAS for most target antimicrobials. Beta-lactam, glycopeptide, and fluoroquinolone classes were largely eliminated by biological wastewater treatment processes, whereas trimethoprim and lincosamides appeared to be persistent. Effects of physicochemical properties and chemical structures of target antimicrobials on their removal efficiencies/mechanisms during wastewater treatment process were also discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotics; Antimicrobials; Conventional activated sludge; Membrane bioreactor; Occurrence; Removal

PMID:
27585426
DOI:
10.1016/j.watres.2016.08.040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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