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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Nov;101(11):4478-4488. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/Intermedin (IMD): A Potential Role in the Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.



It is not known whether decreases in trophoblast invasion promoting the peptide, adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) system is associated with preeclampsia (PreE).


The objective of the study was to assess the changes in ADM2 levels in plasma, placenta, and amniotic fluid (AF) and its receptor components in placenta from PreE pregnancy compared with the age-matched normal and study the effect of ADM2 on the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in trophoblast cells.


PreE is associated with a decreased expression of ADM2 in plasma and placenta (P < .05); ADM2 interacts with a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) in HTR-8/SVneo cells; placental expression of ADM2/CRLR complex is lower in PreE; mRNA for CRLR and receptor activity-modifying protein-3 are lower, whereas receptor activity-modifying protein-2 is higher in the PreE placenta (P < .05); ADM2 levels in the second trimester are lower in the AF from pregnant women who develop PreE later in gestation (P < .05); ADM2 is localized to the epithelium of the amnion and the ectoderm and mesoderm of the chorion in term fetal membranes; ADM2 increases NO production, eNOS, and MMP2/9-immunoreactivity, whereas ADM2 knockdown inhibits the expression of eNOS and MMP2/9 mRNA and S-nitrosylation in HTR-8/SVneo cells; and ADM2-induced increases in MMP2/9 activity is inhibited by L-nitro-arginine methyl ester in HTR-8SV/neo cells.


Decreases in the ADM2 system in PreE at term, in AF from pregnant women during the second trimester who develop PreE later in gestation, and ADM2-induced increases in the NO and MMP-2/9 levels in trophoblast cells suggest a potential role for ADM2 via the NO-MMP system in the pathophysiology of PreE.

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