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J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016 Jul-Aug;6(4):366-72. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.186790.

Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, fluoride release, and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment.

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Department of Public Health Dentistry, Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India.



The aim of this study was to compare constituents of glass powder, fluoride release, and antimicrobial properties of new atraumatic restorative treatment material with zirconia fillers and conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) type IX.


Thisin vitro study comparing Zirconomer and Fuji IX was executed in three parts: (1) energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of glass powders (2) analysis of fluoride release at 1(st), 3(rd), 7(th), 15(th), and 30(th) day, and (3) antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Candida albicans at 48 hours. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-test and two way analysis of variance followed by least significant difference post hoc test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that, in both Zirconomer and Fuji IX glass powders, mean atomic percentage of oxygen was more than 50%. According to the weight percentage, zirconium in Zirconomer and silica in Fuji IX were the second main elements. Calcium, zinc, and zirconium were observed only in Zirconomer. At all the time intervals, statistically significant higher amount of fluoride release was observed with Zirconomer than Fuji IX. At 48 hours, mean ± standard deviation (SD) of zone of inhibition against Streptococcus mutans was 11.14 ± 0.77 mm and 8.51 ± 0.43 mm for Zirconomer and Fuji IX, respectively. Against Lactobacillus casei, it was 14.06 ± 0.71 mm for Zirconomer and 11.70 ± 0.39 mm for Fuji IX. No antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans by Zirconomer and Fuji IX.


Zirconomer had higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei, which may be attributed to its composition and higher fluoride release. However, it failed to show antifungal effect againstCandida albicans.


Dental atraumatic restorative treatment; energy dispersive X-ray analysis; fluoride; glass ionomer cements

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