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Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016 Aug 31;7(1):125. doi: 10.1186/s13287-016-0363-7.

Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function.

Author information

1
University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA. jspees@uvm.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, Stem Cell Core, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Ste 2, Colchester, VT, 05446, USA. jspees@uvm.edu.
3
Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M University College of Medicine, 206 Olsen Blvd., Room 228, MS1114, College Station, TX, 77845, USA.
4
Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M University College of Medicine, 206 Olsen Blvd., Room 228, MS1114, College Station, TX, 77845, USA. CGregory@medicine.tamhsc.edu.

Abstract

The past decade has seen an explosion of research directed toward better understanding of the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) function during rescue and repair of injured organs and tissues. In addition to delineating cell-cell signaling and molecular controls for MSC differentiation, the field has made particular progress in defining several other mechanisms through which administered MSCs can promote tissue rescue/repair. These include: 1) paracrine activity that involves secretion of proteins/peptides and hormones; 2) transfer of mitochondria by way of tunneling nanotubes or microvesicles; and 3) transfer of exosomes or microvesicles containing RNA and other molecules. Improved understanding of MSC function holds great promise for the application of cell therapy and also for the development of powerful cell-derived therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Focusing on these three mechanisms, we discuss MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and fibrosis and review recent progress with MSC-based or MSC-derived therapeutics.

KEYWORDS:

Exosome; Mesenchymal stem cell; Microvesicle; Mitochondria transfer; Multipotent stromal cell; Paracrine; Tunneling nanotube

PMID:
27581859
PMCID:
PMC5007684
DOI:
10.1186/s13287-016-0363-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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