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Eur Respir Rev. 2016 Sep;25(141):348-59. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0038-2016.

Sports related to drowning.

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Sociedade Brasileira de Salvamento Aquatico - SOBRASA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Division of Pediatrics, Dept of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Florida Hospital Tampa, Tampa, FL, USA Dept of Pediatrics and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins All Childrens Hospital, St Petersburg, FL, USA.


Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role.

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