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Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 15;63(10):1380-1387. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Cognitive Function in Young Persons With and Without Perinatal HIV in the AALPHI Cohort in England: Role of Non-HIV-Related Factors.

Author information

1
MRC Clinical Trials Unit, University College London.
2
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London.
3
Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

 There is limited evidence about the cognitive performance of older adolescents with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared with HIV-negative (HIV-) adolescents.

METHODS:

 A total of 296 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and 97 HIV- adolescents (aged 12-21 and 13-23 years, respectively) completed 12 tests covering 6 cognitive domains. The HIV- participants had PHIV+ siblings and/or an HIV-infected mother. Domain-specific and overall (NPZ-6) z scores were calculated for PHIV+ participants, with or without Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C disease, and HIV- participants. Linear regression was performed to explore predictors of NPZ-6.

RESULTS:

 One hundred twenty-five (42%) of the PHIV+ and 31 (32%) of the HIV- participants were male; 251 (85%) and 69 (71%), respectively, were black African; and their median ages (interquartile range) were 16 (15-18) and 16 (14-18) years, respectively. In PHIV+ participants, 247 (86%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and 76 (26%) had a previous CDC C diagnosis. The mean (standard deviation) NPZ-6 score was -0.81 (0.99) in PHIV+ participants with a CDC C diagnosis (PHIV+/C), -0.45 (0.80) in those without a CDC C diagnosis (PHIV+/no C), and -0.32 (0.76) in HIV- participants (P < .001). After adjustment, there was no difference in NPZ-6 scores between PHIV+/no C and HIV- participants (adjusted coefficient, -0.01; 95% confidence interval, -.22 to .20). PHIV+/C participants scored below the HIV- group (adjusted coefficient, -0.44; -.70 to -.19). Older age predicted higher NPZ-6 scores, and black African ethnicity and worse depression predicted lower NPZ-6 scores. In a sensitivity analysis including PHIV+ participants only, no HIV-related factors apart from a CDC C diagnosis were associated with NPZ-6 scores.

CONCLUSIONS:

 Cognitive performance was similar between PHIV+/no C and HIV- participants and indicated relatively mild impairment compared with normative data. The true impact on day-to-day functioning needs further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; adolescents; cognitive; perinatal; young people

PMID:
27581764
PMCID:
PMC5091348
DOI:
10.1093/cid/ciw568
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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