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Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Oct;104(4):1121-1127. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Long-term changes in childhood malnutrition are associated with long-term changes in maternal BMI: evidence from Bangladesh, 1996-2011.

Author information

1
School of Public Health and tanvir.hasan@uq.net.au.
2
Children's Health Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; and School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Australia.
3
School of Public Health and.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nutritional transition (from under- to overnutrition) among women of reproductive age (15-49 y) is becoming increasingly common in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. However, the influence of this transition on the nutritional status of children <5 y of age (U5s) is unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim was to determine whether a nutritional transition has taken place in the past 15 y (1996-2011) among U5s and their mothers in Bangladesh and to examine how the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and malnutrition in U5s has changed over time.

DESIGN:

We analyzed data assembled from 5 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1996 and 2011 in Bangladesh to describe the nutritional status of 28,941 U5s and their mothers. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations between maternal BMI and stunting, underweight, and wasting in U5s over time.

RESULTS:

A nutritional transition among mothers of U5s was observed between 1996 and 2011. The height- or length-for-age and weight-for-age z score distributions of U5s showed consistent improvement; however, there was no indication of a nutritional transition. An interaction was found between maternal BMI categorized as underweight [BMI (kg/m2) <18.5], healthy BMI (BMI: 18.5-24.9), and overweight or obese (BMI ≥25) and year of survey on the risks of stunting and underweight in children. In 1996, children of underweight mothers had a 5% higher risk of being stunted than those born to healthy-BMI mothers (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10); in 2011, children of underweight mothers had a 21% higher risk of being stunted (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.30). Maternal overweight or obesity was associated with a reduced risk of malnutrition in children.

CONCLUSIONS:

A nutritional transition among U5s has yet to occur in Bangladesh. However, our results indicate that improvement in maternal BMI in the past 15 y was accompanied by a reduction in malnutrition in U5s.

KEYWORDS:

Bangladesh; children under 5 years of age; malnutrition; maternal BMI; nutritional transition

PMID:
27581468
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.115.111773
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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