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BMC Neurosci. 2016 Aug 31;17(1):60. doi: 10.1186/s12868-016-0295-2.

Astaxanthin alleviates cerebral edema by modulating NKCC1 and AQP4 expression after traumatic brain injury in mice.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266005, China.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China. drchunlongzhong@126.com.
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China. wangyong68@163.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin displays potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, such as ischemic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study explored whether astaxanthin is neuroprotective and ameliorates neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI).

RESULTS:

Our results showed that, following CCI, treatment with astaxanthin compared to vehicle ameliorated neurologic dysfunctions after day 3 and alleviated cerebral edema and Evans blue extravasation at 24 h (p < 0.05). Astaxanthin treatment decreased AQP4 and NKCC1 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h. AQP4 and NKCC1 protein expressions in the peri-contusional cortex were significantly reduced by astaxanthin at 24 h (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we also found that bumetanide (BU), an inhibitor of NKCC1, inhibited trauma-induced AQP4 upregulation (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest that astaxanthin reduces TBI-related injury in brain tissue by ameliorating AQP4/NKCC1-mediated cerebral edema and that NKCC1 contributes to the upregulation of AQP4 after TBI.

KEYWORDS:

Aquaporin-4; Astaxanthin; Cerebral edema; Na+–K+–2Cl− co-transporter-1; Traumatic brain injury

PMID:
27581370
PMCID:
PMC5007682
DOI:
10.1186/s12868-016-0295-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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