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Exp Physiol. 2016 Nov 1;101(11):1392-1405. doi: 10.1113/EP085899. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Contractile function recovery in severely injured gastrocnemius muscle of rats treated with either oleic or linoleic acid.

Author information

1
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
3
Institute of Physical Activity Sciences and Sports, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
4
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. ruicuri@icb.usp.br.

Abstract

What is the central question of this study? Oleic and linoleic acids modulate fibroblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation in vitro. However, their in vivo effects on muscle regeneration have not yet been examined. We investigated the effects of either oleic or linoleic acid on a well-established model of muscle regeneration after severe laceration. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that linoleic acid increases fibrous tissue deposition and impairs muscle regeneration and recovery of contractile function, whereas oleic acid has the opposite effects in severely injured gastrocnemius muscle, suggesting that linoleic acid has a harmful effect and oleic acid a potential therapeutic effect on muscle regeneration. Oleic and linoleic acids control fibroblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation in vitro; however, there was no study in skeletal muscle in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of either oleic or linoleic acid on the fibrous tissue content (collagen deposition) of muscle and recovery of contractile function in rat gastrocnemius muscle after being severely injured by laceration. Rats were supplemented with either oleic or linoleic acid for 4 weeks after laceration [0.44 g (kg body weight)-1 day-1 ]. Muscle injury led to an increase in oleic-to-stearic acid and palmitoleic-to-palmitic acid ratios, suggesting an increase in Δ9 desaturase activity. Increased fibrous tissue deposition and reduced isotonic and tetanic specific forces and resistance to fatigue were observed in the injured muscle. Supplementation with linoleic acid increased the content of eicosadienoic (20:2, n-6) and arachidonic (20:4, n-6) acids, reduced muscle mass and fibre cross-sectional areas, increased fibrous tissue deposition and further reduced the isotonic and tetanic specific forces and resistance to fatigue induced by laceration. Supplementation with oleic acid increased the content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, n-3) and abolished the increase in fibrous tissue area and the decrease in isotonic and tetanic specific forces and resistance to fatigue induced by muscle injury. We concluded that supplementation with linoleic acid impairs muscle regeneration and increases fibrous tissue deposition, resulting in impaired recovery of contractile function. Oleic acid supplementation reduced fibrous tissue deposition and improved recovery of contractile function, attenuating the tissue damage caused by muscle injury.

KEYWORDS:

fatty acid composition; fatty acids; muscle contraction; muscle regeneration; skeletal muscle

PMID:
27579497
DOI:
10.1113/EP085899
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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