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Ann Biomed Eng. 2017 Mar;45(3):775-788. doi: 10.1007/s10439-016-1715-2. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Effect of Anconeus Muscle Blocking on Elbow Kinematics: Electromyographic, Inertial Sensors and Finite Element Study.

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Bioengineering Research Group, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.
Bioengineering Research Group, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.
Wrightington Hospital, Wigan and Leigh NHS Foundation Trust, Lancashire, UK.


The specific contribution of the anconeus muscle to elbow function is still uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the effect on elbow kinematics and kinetics of blocking anconeus using lidocaine. Ten healthy volunteers performed experimental trials involving flexion-extension and supination-pronation movements in horizontal and sagittal planes. Inertial sensors and surface electromyography were used to record elbow kinematics and kinetics and electrical activity from the anconeus, biceps and triceps brachii before and after blocking anconeus. Moreover, a finite element model of the elbow was created to further investigate the contribution of anconeus to elbow kinematics. The electrical activity results from the trials before blocking clearly indicated that activity of anconeus was increased during extension, suggesting that it behaves as an extensor. However, blocking anconeus had no effect on the elbow kinematics and kinetics, including the angular velocity, net torque and power of the joint. The electrical activity of the biceps and triceps brachii did not alter significantly following anconeus blocking. These results suggest that anconeus is a weak extensor, and the relative small contribution of anconeus to extension before blocking was compensated by triceps brachii. The finite element results indicated that anconeus does not contribute significantly to elbow kinematics.


Flexion–extension; Lidocaine; Net torque; Power; Pronation–supination; Weak extensor

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