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Nutrients. 2016 Aug 26;8(9). pii: E523. doi: 10.3390/nu8090523.

Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada. scolli69@uwo.ca.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada. gregor@uwo.ca.
3
Centre for Human Microbiome and Probiotics, Lawson Health Research Institute, 268 Grosvenor St., London, ON N6A 4V2, Canada. gregor@uwo.ca.

Abstract

The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

KEYWORDS:

bone; brain; cardiovascular; immune; microbiome; prebiotics

PMID:
27571098
PMCID:
PMC5037510
DOI:
10.3390/nu8090523
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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