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Neuroimage. 2016 Dec;143:82-90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.08.040. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Glucose metabolism-weighted imaging with chemical exchange-sensitive MRI of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) in brain: Sensitivity and biological sources.

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NeuroImaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, United States; Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, United States. Electronic address:
NeuroImaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, United States.
Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.


Recent proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the uptake and metabolism of non-labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) by a chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) MRI approach. In order to gain better understanding of this new approach, we performed dynamic in vivo CESL MRI on healthy rat brains with an intravenous injection of 2DG under various conditions at 9.4T. For three 2DG doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1g/kg, we found that 2DG-CESL signals increased linearly with injection dose at the initial (<20min) but not the later period (>40min) suggesting time-dependent differential weightings of 2DG transport and metabolism. Remaining 2DG-CESL studies were performed with 0.25g/kg 2DG. Since a higher isoflurane level reduces glucose metabolism and increases blood flow, 2DG-CESL was measured under 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.2% isoflurane. The 2DG-CESL signal was reduced at higher isoflurane levels correlating well with the 2DG phosphorylation in the intracellular space. To detect regional heterogeneities of glucose metabolism, 2DG-CESL with 0.33×0.33×1.50mm3 resolution was obtained, which indeed showed a higher response in the cortex compared to the corpus callosum. Lastly, unlike CESL MRI with the injection of non-transportable mannitol, the 2DG-CESL response decreased with an increased spin-lock pulse power confirming that 2DG-CESL is dominated by chemical exchange processes in the extravascular space. Taken together, our results showed that 2DG-CESL MRI signals mainly indicate glucose transport and metabolism and may be a useful biomarker for metabolic studies of normal and diseased brains.


CESL; CEST; CMRglu; Glucose metabolism; Glucose transport; MRI; PET

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