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Epilepsy Res. 2016 Nov;127:87-92. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2016.08.014. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

A prospective study on changes in blood levels of cholecystokinin-8 and leptin in patients with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Academic Center for Epileptology Kempenhaeghe & Maastricht UMC+, Heeze, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: evelynbrandtwouters@gmail.com.
3
Laboratory Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Academic Center for Epileptology Kempenhaeghe & Maastricht UMC+, Heeze, The Netherlands.
4
Research School of Mental Health & Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Center for Neurological Learning and Development Disabilities, Academic Center for Epileptology Kempenhaeghe & Maastricht UMC+, Heeze, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Neurology, Academic Center for Epileptology Kempenhaeghe & Maastricht UMC+, Heeze, The Netherlands; Research School of Mental Health & Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the changes in serum CCK-8 and leptin levels in patients with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet (KD).

METHODS:

In this prospective study, patients aged between one and 40 years with refractory epilepsy were included. CCK-8 and leptin were measured in serum at baseline and after three and 12 months of treatment with the KD using an enzyme-linked Immunoabsorbant Assay. Seizure frequency and responsiveness were calculated.

RESULTS:

Fifty-four patients were included; 26 patients (48%) were still on the KD at 12 months. After three and 12 months, respectively, 39% and 26% were responders. CCK-8 values were statistically significantly increased at three months (p=0.005) and 12 months (p=0.012). In responders, at three months follow-up, this increase of CCK-8 was significant (p=0.020), whereas in the non-responders it was not (p=0.34). Leptin values were decreased at three and 12 months, the decrease at three months being statistically significant in post-pubertal men (p=0.028) and post-pubertal women (p=0.007).

SIGNIFICANCE:

In responders to the KD, serum CCK-8 increased statistically significantly during treatment at three months. Serum leptin decreased statistically significantly at three months in men and in post-pubertal women. It is plausible that the increase of CCK-8 and the decrease of leptin contribute to the anti-convulsive effect of the KD.

KEYWORDS:

Cholecystokinin-8; Ketogenic diet; Leptin; Mechanism of action; Refractory epilepsy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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