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J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 Sep 6;54(2):427-43. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160527.

Stroke, Vascular Dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease: Molecular Links.

Vijayan M1, Reddy PH1,2,3,4,5,6.

Author information

1
Garrison Institute on Aging, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
2
Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
3
Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
4
Department of Neurology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
5
Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.
6
Garrison Institute on Aging, South West Campus, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Abstract

Stroke is a brain disease that occurs when blood flow stops, resulting in reduced oxygen supply to neurons. Stroke occurs at any time and at any age, but increases after the age of 55. It is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted, life-years. The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is complex and recent molecular, cellular, and animal models and postmortem brain studies have revealed that multiple cellular changes have been implicated, including oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory responses, micro RNA alterations, and marked changes in brain proteins. These cellular changes provide new information for developing therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke treatment. Research also revealed that stroke increases with a number of modifiable factors and most strokes can be prevented and/or controlled through pharmacological or surgical interventions and lifestyle changes. Ischemic stroke is the major risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the latest research findings on stroke, including causal factors and molecular links between stroke and vascular disease/Alzheimer's disease.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; hemorrhage; inflammatory responses; ischemic stroke; magnetic resonance imaging; vascular dementia

PMID:
27567871
PMCID:
PMC5793908
DOI:
10.3233/JAD-160527
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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