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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Aug 23;13(9). pii: E838. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13090838.

Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy. chiara.mameli@unimi.it.
2
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy. saramazzantini@hotmail.it.
3
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy. gianvincenzo.zuccotti@unimi.it.

Abstract

Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies.

KEYWORDS:

breast feeding; child nutrition; diet; obesity; overweight

PMID:
27563917
PMCID:
PMC5036671
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph13090838
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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