Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Aug 23;13(9). pii: E837. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13090837.

Evaluation of the Accuracy of Capillary Hydroxybutyrate Measurement Compared with Other Measurements in the Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Systematic Review.

Author information

College of Nursing, Midwifery and Healthcare, University of West London, Boston Manor Road Brentford, Middlesex TW8 9GA, UK.
Faculty of Education and Health, University of Greenwich, Avery Hill Campus, London SE9 2UG, UK.
Faculty of Education and Health, University of Greenwich, Avery Hill Campus, London SE9 2UG, UK.


A complication of diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which if left untreated is a life threatening condition. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of DKA is required for the commencement of life saving interventions. Measurements of ketone bodies in DKA have usually been through nitroprusside urine acetoacetate testing. The aim of this systematic review was to examine whether capillary β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) testing is more accurate compared to other diagnostic methods of DKA. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PSYCHInfo, CINAHL and Science Direct for publications from 1 January 2005 and up to and including 1 January 2016. Inclusion criteria were: Adults 18 years and over and known type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Retrospective and prospective observation studies were included. A total of nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Capillary β-OHB was found to have high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in identifying DKA compared to urinary ketone testing.


diabetes ketoacidosis; emergency department; ketones; point of care testing; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center