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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017 Mar 1;122(3):533-540. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00577.2016. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury.

Author information

1
Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital and Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; and abigailmac@sund.ku.dk.
2
Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
3
Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery M, Bispebjerg Hospital and Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; and.

Abstract

Human skeletal muscle has the potential to regenerate completely after injury induced under controlled experimental conditions. The events inside the myofibers as they undergo necrosis, followed closely by satellite cell-mediated myogenesis, have been mapped in detail. Much less is known about the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibers and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesizing this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodeling demonstrate a strong response that appears to be sustained for a long time after the major myofiber responses have subsided. While the use of electrical stimulation to induce eccentric contractions vs. voluntary eccentric contractions appears to lead to a greater extent of myofiber necrosis and regenerative response, this difference is not apparent when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning against this, however, is the association between muscle matrix protein remodeling and protection against reinjury, which suggests that a (so far undefined) period of vulnerability to reinjury may exist during the remodeling phases. The role of individual muscle matrix components and their spatial interaction during adaptation to eccentric contractions is an unexplored field in human skeletal muscle and may provide insight into the optimal timing of rest vs. return to activity after muscle injury.

KEYWORDS:

extracellular matrix; fibroblasts; muscle injury; regenerating skeletal muscle; satellite cells

PMID:
27562842
DOI:
10.1152/japplphysiol.00577.2016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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