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Malar J. 2016 Aug 25;15(1):433. doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1490-4.

Selection of N86F184D1246 haplotype of Pfmrd1 gene by artemether-lumefantrine drug pressure on Plasmodium falciparum populations in Senegal.

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Laboratory of Parasitology/Mycology HALD, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, PO Box 5005, Dakar, Senegal.
Laboratory of Parasitology/Mycology HALD, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, PO Box 5005, Dakar, Senegal.
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
Malaria Research Centre, Serrekunda, Gambia.
University of Bamako, Bamako, Mali.
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.



The use of artemisinin as a monotherapy resulted in the emergence of artemisinin resistance in 2005 in Southeast Asia. Monitoring of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is critical in order to detect and prevent the spread of resistance in endemic areas. Ex vivo studies and genotyping of molecular markers of resistance can be used as part of this routine monitoring strategy. One gene that has been associated in some ACT partner drug resistance is the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmdr1) gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the drug susceptibility of P. falciparum populations from Thiès, Senegal by ex vivo assay and typing molecular markers of resistance to drug components of ACT currently used for treatment.


The ex vivo susceptibility of 170 P. falciparum isolates to chloroquine, amodiaquine, lumefantrine, artesunate, and artemether was determined using the DAPI ex vivo assay. The high resolution melting technique was used to genotype the pfmdr1 gene at codons 86, 184 and 1246.


A significant decrease in IC50 values was observed between 2012 and 2013: from 13.84 to 6.484 for amodiaquine, 173.4 to 113.2 for lumefantrine, and 39.72 to 18.29 for chloroquine, respectively. Increase of the wild haplotype NYD and the decrease of the mutant haplotype NFD (79 and 62.26 %) was also observed. A correlation was observed between the wild type allele Y184 in pfmdr1 and higher IC50 for all drugs, except amodiaquine.


This study has shown an increase in sensitivity over the span of two transmission seasons, marked by an increase in the WT alleles at pfmdr1. Continuous the monitoring of the ACT used for treatment of uncomplicated malaria will be helpful.


Artemether–lumefantrine; Haplotype; Plasmodium falciparum; Senegal; pfmdr1

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