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Phytother Res. 2016 Dec;30(12):1988-2000. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5705. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol and Organic Acids Affect Gene Expression of Selected Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Markers in IPEC-J2 Cells Exposed to Salmonella typhimurium.

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Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Animal Sciences Post-graduation Program, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.


Essential oils and organic acids are used as feed additives to improve health status and reduce colonization with pathogens. Although bactericidal in vitro, concentrations achieved in the animal gut are probably not lethal to pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and cinnamic, lactic and propionic acids on the ability of Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 (ST) to invade intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and on the expression levels of immune related genes in the cells. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and non-inhibitory concentration (NIC) were determined and influence on the invasion capacity of ST was investigated. The structure of fimbriae and flagella was analysed by electron microscopy, and expression levels of HSP70, IkBa, IL-8 and IL-10 in the IPEC-J2 cells were carried out by q-PCR. Cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and cinnamic and propionic acids inhibited ST invasion but not cell viability, bacterial viability and motility or the development of flagella. Propionic acid and cinnamaldehyde in combination with cinnamic acid caused structural impairment of fimbriae. Cinnamaldehyde up-regulated expression of HSP70 irrespective of the presence of organic acids or ST; exposure to carvacrol induced HSP70 only in the presence of propionic acid and ST. © 2016 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


IPEC-J2; Salmonella typhimurium; essential oils; gene expression; inflammation

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