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Microb Drug Resist. 2017 Jun;23(4):421-428. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2016.0024. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Prevalence of gyrA Mutations in Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Strains of Salmonella Enteritidis Isolated from Humans, Food, Chickens, and the Farm Environment in Brazil.

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1 Universidade de São Paulo - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto , Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil .
2 Instituto Adolfo Lutz de Ribeirão Preto-Rua Minas , Ribeirão Preto, Brazil .


Salmonella Enteritidis strains that are resistant to nalidixic acid and exhibit reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones have been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the quinolone resistance mechanisms of S. Enteritidis strains. This study analyzed the profile of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE mutations and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms in S. Enteritidis NalR strains isolated in Brazil. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin were evaluated in 84 NalR strains and compared with 20 NalS strains. The mutation profiles of the gyrA gene were accessed by high-resolution melting analysis and gyrB, parC, and parE by quinolone resistance-determining region sequencing. The MICs of ciprofloxacin were accessed with Etest®. The strains were divided into five gyrA melting profiles. The NalR strains exhibited the following amino acid substitutions: Ser97→Pro, Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Asn, or Asp87→Tyr. The average MICs of ciprofloxacin was 0.006 μg/ml in the NalS and 0.09 μg/ml in the NalR strains. No points of mutation were observed in the genes gyrB, parC, and parE. The qnrB gene was found in two strains. In conclusion, the reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin observed in NalR strains may cause treatment failures once this drug is commonly used to treat Salmonella infections. Moreover, this reduced susceptibility in these Brazilian strains was provided by target alteration of gene gyrA and not by mobile elements, such as resistance plasmids.


Salmonella Enteritidis; ciprofloxacin; gyrA mutations; nalidixic acid; quinolone resistance; resistance mechanisms

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