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J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Dec 4;193:333-344. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.029. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

Protective effects of triptolide on TLR4 mediated autoimmune and inflammatory response induced myocardial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development (Ministry of Health), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development (Ministry of Health), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin, China. Electronic address: xfx22081@vip.163.com.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Triptolide is a most important active ingredient extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium, which has been widely used to treat glomerulonephritis as well as immune-mediated disorders, likely for its immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

In this study, we have investigated the potential protective effects of triptolide against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) by regulating immune system, attenuating inflammatory response, thus resulting in decreased cardiac fibrosis and improved left ventricle function.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal group, diabetic group and diabetic rats treated with triptolide (50, 100, or 200μg/kg/day resp) for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was performed by echocardiography and histopathology of the hearts was examined with HE, Masson staining and scanning electron microscopy. Immune regulation mediator, macrophage infiltration, inflammatory response and cardiac fibrosis related cytokines were measured by RT-PCR, Western blot and Immunohistochemistry staining.

RESULTS:

In the diabetic group, the expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 were both up-regulated, which was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, coupled with cardiac fibrosis and impaired left ventricular function. Interestingly, pathological structure and function of left ventricle were both significantly improved in the triptolide treated groups. Furthermore, the immune mediator TLR4, downstream activator NF-κB p65, macrophage infiltration (CD68+), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and chemokine (MCP-1) were significantly suppressed when treated with medium and high dosage triptolide compared with the diabetic group. Moreover, cardiac fibrosis pathway including α-SMA, TGF-β1, vimentin and collagen accumulations were observed significantly decreased in the triptolide treated groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data demonstrated that the protective effects of triptolide against DCM might attribute to inhibition of TLR4-induced NF-κB/IL-1β immune pathway, suppression of NF-κB/TNF-α/VCAM-1 inflammatory pathway and down-regulation of TGF-β1/α-SMA/Vimentin fibrosis pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Fibrosis; Immune; Inflammation; Triptolide; Triptolide (PubChem CID: 107985)

PMID:
27558948
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.029
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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